What Are the Parts of Split AC

Do you ever wonder what makes your split AC function so effectively?

Well, let’s break it down for you.

The outdoor unit is where the magic begins, housing the compressor, condenser coil, and refrigerant.

Inside, the indoor unit contains the evaporator coil, expansion valve, air filters, and thermostat.

Each part plays a crucial role in keeping you cool and comfortable.

So, if you’re looking for a detailed understanding of the parts that bring you that sweet relief, you’ve come to the right place!

Key Takeaways

  • Regular maintenance is essential for optimal performance of a split AC
  • The outdoor unit houses the compressor, condenser coil, and refrigerant, and should be kept clean and free from debris
  • The indoor unit requires regular cleaning and maintenance, including cleaning air filters and the evaporator coil
  • The compressor is responsible for compressing the refrigerant gas, and regular inspection, cleaning, and lubrication are necessary for efficient heat exchange.

The Outdoor Unit

You’ll find the outdoor unit of a split AC located outside your home or building. The outdoor unit plays a crucial role in the functioning of your AC system.

It’s responsible for dissipating heat from the refrigerant, allowing it to cool down and return indoors as cold air. To ensure optimal performance and energy efficiency, regular outdoor unit maintenance is essential.

This includes keeping the unit clean and free from debris, such as leaves and dirt, which can hinder airflow and reduce its efficiency. Additionally, checking the outdoor unit for any signs of damage or wear, such as bent fins or loose connections, is important.

The Indoor Unit

To ensure proper airflow and circulation, it’s important to regularly clean and maintain the indoor unit of your split AC. Here are some maintenance tips to help you keep your indoor unit in optimal condition:

  • Indoor unit installation:

  • Choose a suitable location for your indoor unit, preferably near the center of the room for better air distribution.

  • Ensure proper insulation around the unit to prevent air leakage and improve energy efficiency.

  • Maintenance tips:

  • Clean the air filters regularly to remove dust and debris that can hinder airflow. This will also improve the air quality in your space.

  • Check and clean the evaporator coil to prevent the buildup of dirt and mold, which can affect the cooling efficiency.

  • Inspect the condensate drain and make sure it’s clear of any obstructions to prevent water leakage.


Now let’s talk about the compressor, a crucial component of the split AC system.

The compressor is responsible for compressing the refrigerant gas, turning it into a high-pressure and high-temperature vapor. This process allows for efficient heat exchange and ensures effective cooling of the indoor space.

Understanding the function, types, and sizes of compressors is essential in selecting the right one for your split AC system and ensuring optimal performance.

Function of Compressor

During operation, the compressor in a split AC system works to circulate refrigerant and compress it to increase its temperature and pressure. The compressor plays a crucial role in maintaining the efficiency and performance of the AC unit. Here are some important functions of the compressor:

  • Circulation: The compressor ensures the continuous circulation of refrigerant throughout the system, allowing for the transfer of heat from the indoor space to the outdoor environment.

  • Compression: By compressing the refrigerant, the compressor increases its temperature and pressure, enabling it to release heat when it reaches the condenser coil.

  • Efficiency: A well-maintained compressor ensures optimal performance and energy efficiency of the AC system. Regular maintenance, such as cleaning the compressor coils, checking refrigerant levels, and lubricating moving parts, can help improve compressor efficiency.

  • Maintenance: Proper compressor maintenance involves regular inspection, cleaning, and lubrication to prevent issues like refrigerant leaks, compressor failure, or reduced cooling capacity.

Compressor Types and Sizes

Choose the right compressor type and size for your split AC based on your cooling needs and the size of your space.

The compressor is a vital component of a split AC system as it’s responsible for compressing the refrigerant gas and circulating it through the system.

There are two main types of compressors used in split ACs: reciprocating and rotary. Reciprocating compressors use a piston-cylinder arrangement to compress the refrigerant, while rotary compressors use rotating blades to achieve compression.

When it comes to compressor sizes, it’s important to consider the cooling capacity of the AC unit and the size of the room or space you need to cool. Larger rooms or spaces may require a larger compressor size to ensure efficient cooling.

It’s recommended to consult with a professional to determine the appropriate compressor type and size for your specific needs.

Importance of Compressor

Make sure to understand the importance of the compressor in your split AC system, as it plays a crucial role in the cooling process. The compressor is responsible for compressing the refrigerant gas, increasing its pressure and temperature.

Here are a few reasons why the compressor is vital to your split AC system:

  • Compressor Efficiency:

  • The efficiency of the compressor directly affects the cooling performance and energy consumption of your AC system.

  • A more efficient compressor can cool the air faster while consuming less energy, resulting in lower electricity bills.

  • Compressor Lifespan:

  • The lifespan of the compressor is an important factor to consider when purchasing a split AC system.

  • A high-quality compressor with a longer lifespan will ensure reliable and consistent cooling for years to come, reducing maintenance costs and the need for frequent replacements.

Understanding the importance of compressor efficiency and lifespan will help you make informed decisions when choosing and maintaining your split AC system.

Condenser Coil

The condenser coil is a key component of your split AC system. It plays a crucial role in the cooling efficiency of your air conditioner. When the warm air from your room is sucked in by the indoor unit, it passes through the evaporator coil, where it’s cooled down. The cooled air is then circulated back into the room.

However, the heat absorbed by the evaporator coil needs to be released outside. This is where the condenser coil comes into play. It’s responsible for transferring the heat from the refrigerant to the outside air.

To ensure optimal performance and cooling efficiency, regular condenser maintenance is essential. This includes cleaning the coil to remove dirt and debris, as well as checking for any signs of damage or leaks.

Evaporator Coil

Now let’s talk about the evaporator coil, a crucial part of your split AC system.

The evaporator coil plays a key role in the cooling mechanism, as it absorbs heat from the indoor air to produce cool air.

Regular maintenance of the evaporator coil is essential to ensure optimal performance and energy efficiency.

However, if neglected, you may encounter common issues like reduced cooling capacity or even freezing of the coil, which can be resolved through proper troubleshooting techniques.

Cooling Mechanism Explained

To understand how your split AC cools the air, let’s take a closer look at the evaporator coil. This essential part of the cooling mechanism plays a crucial role in maintaining the desired temperature in your space. Here’s how it works:

  • The evaporator coil is responsible for absorbing heat from the air inside the room.
  • It uses a refrigerant, which is a cooling agent, to facilitate the heat transfer process.
  • The refrigerant absorbs the heat from the air and evaporates into a gas.
  • As the refrigerant evaporates, it extracts heat from the surrounding air, reducing its temperature.

This cooling process is highly efficient and helps the split AC achieve its cooling capacity while maintaining energy efficiency. The evaporator coil’s design and materials ensure optimal heat exchange, allowing for effective cooling performance and a comfortable environment for you to enjoy.

Importance of Regular Maintenance

Regular maintenance of your split AC’s evaporator coil is essential for optimal performance and energy efficiency. By following a few simple maintenance tips, you can ensure that your AC operates smoothly and effectively.

Firstly, it’s important to clean the evaporator coil regularly to remove any dirt or debris that may have accumulated. This can be done by gently brushing off the surface and using a mild detergent to remove stubborn stains.

Additionally, checking and replacing the air filters regularly is crucial to maintain proper airflow and prevent the coil from getting clogged.

Regular maintenance not only improves the cooling efficiency of your AC but also extends its lifespan. It reduces the risk of breakdowns and costly repairs, ensuring that your AC operates efficiently and effectively for years to come.

Common Issues and Troubleshooting

Check for any signs of damage or leakage on your AC’s evaporator coil. The evaporator coil is an essential component of your split AC system, responsible for cooling the air that’s circulated throughout your home. However, like any other part, it can experience issues over time.

Here are some troubleshooting tips and common problems you may encounter with your evaporator coil:

  • Frozen Coil: If your AC stops cooling, check for ice formation on the evaporator coil. This could indicate a refrigerant leak or airflow restriction.

  • Dirty Coil: A dirty evaporator coil can reduce cooling efficiency and cause your AC to work harder. Regular cleaning or maintenance can help prevent this problem.

  • Coil Corrosion: Corrosion can weaken the coil and lead to leaks. Inspect the coil for any signs of rust or deterioration.

  • Coil Damage: Physical damage, such as bent or dented fins, can obstruct airflow and affect cooling performance. Straighten any bent fins or consider professional repair.


The refrigerant is a crucial component of your split AC system. It’s responsible for absorbing heat from the indoor air and transferring it outside, allowing the air conditioning unit to cool down your living space.

There are different types of refrigerants used in split AC systems, such as R-22 and R-410A. These refrigerants have different properties that make them suitable for specific applications. For example, R-22 is known for its high heat absorption capacity, while R-410A is more environmentally friendly and has a higher energy efficiency.

The refrigerant properties also affect the overall performance and efficiency of your AC system. It’s important to ensure that the correct refrigerant is used and that it’s properly charged and maintained to ensure optimal cooling performance and energy efficiency.

Expansion Valve

To ensure optimal cooling performance and efficiency, you need to understand how the expansion valve works in your split AC system. The expansion valve plays a crucial role in regulating the flow of refrigerant within the system.

Here is a breakdown of its function and types:

  • Function of the expansion valve:

  • The expansion valve is responsible for controlling the flow of high-pressure, high-temperature refrigerant from the condenser to the evaporator.

  • It reduces the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant, allowing it to evaporate and absorb heat from the surrounding air.

  • Types of expansion valves:

  • Thermostatic expansion valve (TXV): It utilizes a temperature-sensing bulb to regulate the refrigerant flow based on the temperature of the evaporator coil.

  • Electronic expansion valve (EEV): It uses electronic controls to precisely adjust the refrigerant flow based on system requirements, ensuring optimal cooling and energy efficiency.

Understanding the function and types of the expansion valve in your split AC system empowers you to make informed decisions and maintain the desired comfort level in your living space.

Air Filters

When you’re using a split AC, be sure to regularly clean and replace the air filters to maintain optimal air quality and cooling efficiency.

Air filters are an essential component of a split AC system as they help in trapping dust, pollen, and other airborne particles, preventing them from circulating in your living space.

These filters also aid in air purification by removing harmful bacteria and allergens, ensuring a healthy and clean environment.

To maintain the air filters, it’s recommended to clean them every two weeks and replace them every three to six months, depending on usage.

Regular maintenance of the air filters not only improves the air quality but also enhances the cooling efficiency of your split AC, ensuring maximum comfort.


If you want to control the temperature and settings of your split AC, it’s important to understand how the thermostat works. The thermostat is a device that senses the temperature in the room and sends signals to the AC unit to adjust accordingly.

Here are two important things to know about thermostat installation and troubleshooting:

  • Thermostat Installation:

  • Make sure to mount the thermostat on an interior wall away from direct sunlight and heat sources.

  • Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to connect the wires correctly and securely.

  • Thermostat Troubleshooting:

  • If your AC isn’t turning on, check the batteries in the thermostat and replace them if necessary.

  • If the temperature readings on the thermostat are inaccurate, you may need to recalibrate or replace the thermostat.

Frequently Asked Questions

How Often Should the Air Filters Be Cleaned or Replaced in a Split Ac?

To keep your split AC running efficiently, clean or replace the air filters every 1-3 months. To clean, remove the filters and gently wash with mild detergent. To replace, purchase new filters and follow the manufacturer’s instructions.

Can I Install the Outdoor Unit of a Split AC on My Own or Should I Hire a Professional?

To install the outdoor unit of a split AC, it is highly recommended to hire a professional. Their expertise ensures proper installation, minimizing the risk of damage and ensuring optimal performance.

Is It Necessary to Clean the Condenser Coil of a Split AC Regularly? if So, How Often?

To maintain optimal performance, it is important to clean the condenser coil of your split AC regularly. The frequency of cleaning depends on factors such as environment and usage, but it is generally recommended to clean it at least once a year.

What Are the Signs That Indicate a Malfunctioning Compressor in a Split Ac?

Are you experiencing issues with your split AC? Signs of a malfunctioning compressor include strange noises, insufficient cooling, and frequent on and off cycles. Regular maintenance is crucial to prevent such problems.

How Can I Increase the Energy Efficiency of My Split AC Unit?

To increase the energy efficiency of your split AC unit, there are several ways you can reduce energy consumption. Here are some tips for improving split AC efficiency: proper insulation, regular maintenance, using a programmable thermostat.


In conclusion, the split AC system is composed of several essential parts, including the outdoor and indoor units, compressor, condenser coil, evaporator coil, refrigerant, expansion valve, air filters, and thermostat. Each component plays a crucial role in the efficient cooling and conditioning of the air.

By understanding the different parts of a split AC, users can make informed decisions about maintenance and troubleshooting. Now, with this knowledge, have you ever wondered how these components work together to create a comfortable indoor environment?

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